Class 7 Science Chapter 5 Food Safety
Science Solutions Chapter 5 Food Safety – Maharashtra State Board Class 7 Science Solutions Chapter 5 Food Safety Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers.
Class 7-Science : Chapter 5 – “Food Safety” – Question Answer – Maharashtra Board Solutions
Textbook Questions and Answers:
Q 1 ] Complete the following statements by using the correct option from those given below.
(Irradiation, dehydration, pasteurization, natural, chemical)
Q-(a): Drying the food grains from farms under the hot sun is called …………. .
Q-(b): Materials like milk are instantly cooled after heating up to a certain high temperature. This method of food preservation is called ……….. .
Q-(c): Salt is a ……….. type of food preservative.
Q-(d): Vinegar is a …………. type of food preservative.
Q 2] Answer the following questions in your own words.
Q-(a) : How is milk pasteurised?
Ans: Heat the milk at 80°C for 15 minutes and cool it quickly. This destroys the microbes present in the milk and it can store for a longer duration. This process is called pasteurization of milk.
Q-(b) : Why should we not consume adulterated food materials?
Ans: Various types of adulterants have distinct impacts on our health. Certain adulterants can lead to abdominal discomfort or poisoning, whereas others might influence the proper functioning of specific organs if ingested consistently over an extended duration. In severe cases, some adulterants could even be linked to the development of cancer.
Q-(c) : What precautions do your parents take to keep foodstuffs safe?
Ans : Our parents take following care to keep foodstuffs safe
a. Drying of grains.
b. Boiling of milk, soups and curries from time to time.
c. Candying of jams.
d. Refrigeration of vegetables, fruits, milk and cooked food.
e. Use natural preservatives like oil, spices, neem leaves, salt, etc. to keep foodstuff safe.
f. Use chemical preservatives in sauces, ketchups, pickles, jams and squashes.
Q-(d): How does food spoilage occur? Which are the various factors spoiling the food?
Ans : Food spoilage is the process in which food deteriorates to the point in which it is not edible to humans or its quality of edibility becomes reduced.
Following are the factors for spoiling of food:
Bacteria causes food to spoil
Incorrect storage may spoil the food.
Infestation by pests.
Chemical reaction takes place in food and it gets spoiled.
Q-(d): Which methods of food preservation would you use?
Ans: I use following methods to preserve the food:
c. Drying of grains
d. Pickle salting
e. Candying of jams.
Q 3] What shall we do?
Q-(a): There are vendors selling uncovered sweet-meats in open places in the market.
Ans : We need to advise them to sell covered sweets instead of uncovered ones. Uncovered sweets can be harmful to eat because they may contain dust, dirt, and germs. It’s also important for buyers to avoid purchasing these uncovered sweets.
Q-(b): A ‘pani-puriwala’ is serving the panipuri with dirty hands.
Ans: We should remind him to wear gloves while serving panipuri. Dirty hands can carry dirt and germs that can be harmful to our health. Wearing gloves will help keep the food clean and safe to eat.
Q-(c): We have purchased a large quantity of fruits and vegetables.
Ans : We should store fruits and vegetables in the refrigerator. The low temperature inside the refrigerator prevents them from spoiling and slows down the biological and chemical reactions that occur in it. This helps to keep them fresh and maintain their quality for a longer time.
Q-(d): We need to protect foodstuffs from pests like rats, cockroaches, wall-lizards etc.
Ans: If we don’t protect our foodstuffs from pests like rats, cockroaches, and wall lizards, they can spoil the food and introduce harmful germs into it. Eating this contaminated food may lead to food poisoning and make us sick. So, it’s essential to safeguard our food from pests like rats, cockroaches, and wall lizards.
Q 4] Find the odd-man-out.
Q-(a): Salt, vinegar, citric acid, sodium benzoate.
Ans : Salt
Q-(b): Lakhi dal, brick dust, metanyl yellow, turmeric powder.
Ans : Turmeric powder
Q-(c): Banana, apple, guava, almond.
Ans : Almond
Q-(d): Storing, freezing, settling, drying
Ans : Storing
Q 5] Complete the chart below.
Q-(a): Foodstuff Adulterant
|1.||Turmeric powder||Metanyl yellow|
|2.||Black pepper||Dried papaya seeds|
|4.||Honey||Sugar, water and jaggery|
Q 6] Explain why this happens and suggest possible remedies.
Q-(a): Qualitative wastage of food.
Ans: Qualitative wastage of food is happens because of of various reasons. Some of these like improper methods to protect food, using too many preservatives, overcooking food, washing vegetables after cutting them, mishandling fruits. Miscalculating the time needed to transport food from producers to consumers. All of these can lead to the wastage of food in terms of its quality.
i) Avoid overcooking of the food.
ii) Wash fruits and vegetables before cutting it.
iii) Store grains and other perishable vegetables, fruits, milk etc. using proper methods.
Q-(b): The cooked rice is underdone.
Ans: Sometimes in a hurry if we cook the rice and it is underdone.
Use proper pressure cooker to cook the rice in quickly and perfectly.
Q-(c): The wheat that was bought is a bit moist.
Ans : Sometimes due to sudden rain, wheat gets a bit moist.
Do not store the moist wheat, it gets spoiled due to fungus so first sundry it and then store in a clean and dry container to avoid microbial growth.
Q-(d): The taste of yoghurt is too sour/slightly bitter.
Ans: The taste of yoghurt is too sour/slightly bitter means it is spoiled. This happens if it is not kept in the refrigerator.
Always keep the yoghurt in refrigerator to avoid biological and chemical reactions in food materials.
Q-(d): Cut fruits turned black.
Ans: Fruit contains an enzyme called polyphenol oxidase or tyrosinase that reacts with oxygen. The oxidation reaction basically forms a sort of rust on the surface of fruits so it turns black.
i) Coat the fruits with sugar syrup
ii) Add lemon juice on fruits.
Q 7] Give reasons.
Q-(1): Food remains safe at 5° Celsius.
Ans: Food remains safe at 5°C because at this temperature, microorganisms stop growing. This helps us to prevent food from spoiling and keeps it fresh for a longer time.
Q-(2): Nowadays, food is served in buffet style during large gatherings.
Ans: Nowadays, during big gatherings or any event, food is often served buffet style. Buffet style helps to reduce the wastage of of food. People can take only what they can eat, so there’s less leftover food in the plate.
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Q-(1): Go to your kitchen and take notes about the food safety measures and the food wastage you see there.
Check the Actions: Do your project as per.
- Go to your kitchen and observe the food safety measures in place, such as proper storage of perishable items, cleanliness, and hygiene practices.
- Take notes on any food wastage you observe, including leftover food, expired items, or items that are past their prime.
- Find the reasons for the wastage of food and identify areas where improvements can be made.
- Create a plan to implement better food safety measures and reduce food wastage, such as better organization, meal planning, and proper portion control.
- Educate yourself and others in the household about the importance of food safety and ways to minimize wastage.
- Regularly monitor and update the progress of the project to ensure its effectiveness in promoting food safety and reducing wastage.
Q-(2): In a science exhibition demonstrate the various methods of detecting food adulteration.
Additional Questions : Outside textbook questions
a) Filling the Blanks:
Q-(1) : FSSAI means ………………………. . (Full form of FSSAI)
Ans: Food Safety and Standardization Authority of India
Q-(2) : ………………………. is celebrated as “World Food Day”.
Ans : 16th October
Q-(3) : ………………………. gas is filled in tight packets of potato wafers.
Ans : Nitrogen
Q-(4) : ………………………. is sprayed on the gunny bags containing food grains.
Ans : Melathion
Q-(5) In Pasteurisation process milk is heat at _______ for 15 minutes and cooling it quickly.
Ans : 80°C
Q-(6) : Common name of acetic acid is ……………………….
Ans : Vinegar
Q-(7) : ………………………. and ………………………. are emitted by radioactive isotopes in irradiation method.
Ans : X – rays, gamma rays
Q-(8) : In Maharashtra, irradiation plants have been installed at ………………………. for onions and potatoes and at for spices and condiments.
Ans : Lasalgaon, Navi Mumbai
Q-(9) : ………………………. found the pasteurisation method.
Ans : Louis Pasteur
Q-(10) : ………………………. is used in smoking method.
Ans : Aluminium phosphide
Q-(11) : ………………………. adulterant is added to turmeric powder.
Ans : Metanyl yellow
Q-(12) : ………………………. and ………………………. harmful chemicals are mixed with cold drinks.
Ans : carbonated soda, phosphoric acid
Q-(13) : ………………………. adulterant is added to red chilly powder.
Ans : Brickdust
Q-(14) : Milk vendors add ………………………. to the milk to appear as higher fat content.
Ans : urea
Q-(15) : ………………………. is used to make fruits more attractive.
Ans : calcium carbide
Q-(16) : Shopkeepers change the of the ………………………. food packets to avoid a financial loss.
Ans : expiry date
Q-(17) : The shelf life of potatoes and onions ………………………. due to slowed-down of sprouting.
Ans : increases
Q-(18) : Miscalculation of the time required to transport food from producers to consumers leads to ……………………… . wastage of food.
Ans : Qualitative
Q-(19) : Prevention of food spoilage by microbial growth and infestation by pests is called ……………………. .
Ans : food protection
Q-(20) : Serving too much food to guests at traditional feasts and banquets leads to ………………………. wastage of food.
Ans : Quantitative
Q-(21) : ………………………. is an example of a chemical preservative.
Ans : Sodium benzoate.
b) Give scientific reasons.
Q-(1) : Refrigerators are used in the kitchen.
Ans : Biological and chemical reactions in food materials are slowed down at low temperature.
As a result food remains in good condition for a longer period. Therefore refrigerators are used in the kitchen.
Q-(2) : Grains are sun-dried.
Ans: Grains are sun-dried to preserve them because on sun drying their water content gets reduced and hence they last longer.
Q-(3) : Jams or pickles get spoil if their jars are not sealed properly.
Ans: If the jar is not closed tightly, micro-organisms from the air can enter inside. These micro-organisms will start growing on it very quickly. The oxygen in the air, helps these micro-organism to grow. Then these fungi can spoil the jams and pickles, making them go bad.
So just make sure to close the jar tightly, and your jams and pickles will stay fresh and tasty for a long time!
Q-(4) : Potatoes and onions are treated with gamma rays.
Ans: Potatoes and onions are treated with gamma rays because when they are irradiated with gamma rays, it helps stop them from sprouting and keeps them fresh for a much longer time.
This way, we can avoid wasting these delicious veggies and make them last even longer on our shelves!
Q-(5) : We boil milk from time to time.
Ans: We boil milk from time to time, because it helps to kill the microorganisms that might be in it. This makes the milk safe to drink and keeps it from getting spoiled.
So, remember to boil your milk before you enjoy a nice glass of it!
Q-(6) : Food wastage should be avoided.
Ans: a) In our country, many people who don’t get enough food to eat, and some don’t even have a proper meal in a whole day. If we avoid wasting food, it could have been used to feed many others in need.
b) So, it’s important not to waste food and take steps to stop both the large amount of food wastage and the loss of good quality food.
c) By doing this, we can help ensure that more people have enough to eat and reduce hunger in our communities.
Q-(7) : Some vendors add urea to the milk.
Ans: Some vendors add urea to the milk so that it appears to have greater fat content.
Q-(8) : Adulterated food should not be consumed.’
Ans: Food adulteration is dangerous for our health. Different types of adulterants can harm us in various ways. Some can cause stomach pain or poisoning, while others may affect how our organs work over time or even lead to cancer. It’s important to be cautious about the food we eat to stay healthy.
c) Say whether True or False,, Correct and rewrite the false statement.
Q-(1) : Overcooking of food increases the quality of food.
Ans : False. Over cooking of food spoils it.
Q-(2) : Peanuts become rancid then, it is not good to eat.
Ans : True
Q-(3) : To prevent adulteration of food, it is inspected by the “Food and Drug Administration department of the government”.
Ans : True
Q-(4) : Prevention of food spoilage by microbial growth and infestation by pests is called food wastage.
Ans : False. Prevention of food spoilage by microbial growth and infestation by pests is called food protection.
Q-(5) : Serve yourself only as much as you can eat.
Ans : True
Q-(6) : Shelf life of fruits and vegetables decreases by gamma rays emitted by radio-active isotopes.
Ans : False. Shelf life of fruits and ‘ vegetables increases by gamma rays emitted by radioactive isotopes.
Q-(7) : Oil and ghee contain fats.
Ans : True
Q-(8) : Milk vendors add urea to the milk so that it appears to have higher fat content.
Ans : True
Q-(9) : Salt, sugar and oil are naturally available preservatives.
Ans : True
Q-(10) : Pickles can be preserved by salting.
Ans : True
d) Answer the following questions:
Q-(1) : How is the food adulterated?
Ans: Food is adulterated in these ways:
- Some important parts of food are taken out, like removing fat from milk or essential flavors from spices.
- Mixing low-quality or harmful substances or colors with food to make it look better.
- Adding harmful materials like stones, sand, iron filings, urea, horse dung, and sawdust to the food.
Q-(2) : How and where food is wasted?
Ans: Food wastage happens in two ways:
- Quantitative wastage: This occurs due to wrong farming methods, improper storage, and distribution. Additionally, serving too much food at feasts and banquets leads to unnecessary waste.
- Qualitative wastage: It happens when food is not protected properly, and too many preservatives are used. Overcooking, washing vegetables after cutting, mishandling fruits, and miscalculating transport time also contribute to food wastage.
If we can avoid these wasteful practices, all the extra food could help feed many others in need.
Q-(3) : How will you find out if food has been adulterated?
Ans: To find out if food has been adulterated, you can:
- Check for unusual appearance, taste, or smell.
- Look for official quality certifications.
- Use home testing kits.
- Check the expiry date for all packets.
- Get food tested at certified laboratories.
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